Assembly Bill 12: What You Need to Know in 2024

Assembly Bill 12 (AB12) has introduced a cap on rental security deposits in California, sparking discourse among landlords and tenants alike. Here, we’ll examine the implications, exemptions, and significance of this bill for Californians.

Gemma Smith
Last Updated
November 16, 2023
Assembly Bill 12: What You Need to Know in 2024

If you're a landlord in California, you might have just felt the rental landscape shift beneath your feet. The governor has signed a bill that’s set to revolutionize security deposits, and its implications are vast.

Assembly Bill 12 (AB12) offers a transformative approach to housing affordability. Landlords are no longer permitted to request security deposits exceeding a month's rent -- a move aimed at ameliorating housing accessibility amidst California's soaring rent prices.

But what does this mean for you, the property owner? This change offers a fresh perspective on landlord-tenant relations, setting clear boundaries and expectations. With an informed approach, you can navigate this change effectively, ensuring profitability and compliance.

Dive into the specifics of AB12, understand its potential impact on your properties, and prepare yourself for a new chapter in California's rental saga. Let's unpack what this bill means for you and your real estate journey ahead.

Understanding AB12

Assembly Bill 12 (AB12) is a landmark legislation signed into law by Governor Gavin Newsom to make housing more accessible and affordable for renters across California, effective July 1, 2024. Under this new law, landlords are prohibited from demanding a security deposit greater than one month's rent from prospective tenants. This measure addresses and curtails the previous practices of some landlords who charged security deposits equivalent to two or three months of rent.

While the bill sets out to reduce financial barriers for renters, it also provides provisions to safeguard landlords. For instance, all landlords retain the right to seek damages from tenants for harm to the property that surpasses the security deposit amount. This legislation aligns California with 11 other states that have instituted similar caps on security deposits. 

Background and need for the new law

California's housing market has long been an area of concern, primarily due to its soaring rental prices. Recently, cities like San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland have exemplified this trend with exceptionally staggering median rents. Currently, San Francisco leads the pack with a median rent of $3,336 a month, followed by San Jose at $3,021 and Oakland at $2,366. 

Adding to the existing challenges is the historical context surrounding the regulation of security deposits. Since the 1970s, there have been no substantial changes to laws governing security deposits. This stagnation is alarming, especially when contrasted with the rapid rise in rent prices over the decades. The outdated regulations have failed to keep pace with the contemporary needs and challenges of renters in California.

The true magnitude of the problem is further clarified when considering the barriers these hefty security deposits impose. As CBS News reports, 53% of renters in California have the financial capacity to manage their monthly rent but find themselves hamstrung by the crippling cost of security deposits. The majority of Californians being priced out of otherwise affordable housing necessitates revisiting and revising outdated regulations.

Key provisions of AB12

Limitation on security deposits

To address the housing crisis in California, the newly signed Assembly Bill 12 has introduced a significant limitation on security deposits. Under this new legislation, landlords are prohibited from demanding a security deposit that exceeds the value of one month's rent.

This legislation comes as a direct response to landlords who have capitalized on the absence of stringent regulations to charge security deposits amounting to two or even three times the monthly rent.

Such exorbitant demands have historically created barriers to many prospective tenants in California, making it harder for them to secure housing despite being able to afford the monthly rent. With the enactment of this law, the state aims to eliminate these disproportionate financial burdens on renters and ensure a fairer housing market.

Implications for landlords and tenants

Assembly Bill 12, while primarily addressing the concerns of potential renters, also considers the interests of landlords. The law strikes a thoughtful balance between ensuring housing affordability for tenants and safeguarding landlords against possible liabilities.

Recognizing that unexpected damages can sometimes exceed the amount of a single month's security deposit, the legislation provides a provision that remains favorable to property owners. Specifically, landlords retain the right to seek damages from tenants should the harm to the property surpass the stipulated security deposit amount. This provision ensures that while renters are protected from excessive upfront costs, landlords are not left vulnerable to potential losses from damages.

Exemptions and special provisions

While Assembly Bill 12 standardizes the security deposit amount for most landlords in California, it also acknowledges the unique position of smaller property owners. As such, there is a specific exemption for small landlords who own just two properties, provided the total units between these properties do not exceed four. This provision offers flexibility and lessens the potential financial strain on landlords who operate on a smaller scale than larger property management entities.

Comparative perspective

With the enactment of Assembly Bill 12, California aligns itself with a broader movement to standardize and regulate rental security deposits. The Golden State now proudly joins the ranks of 11 other states that have instituted measures capping security deposits at one month's rent. This growing trend across the nation underscores a collective recognition of the challenges renters face and the need for legislative solutions to enhance housing affordability.

Effective date

Landlords and tenants must be mindful of when these new regulations come into play. Assembly Bill 12 is slated to take effect on July 1, 2024. This timeline provides a window of opportunity for all stakeholders to adjust, allowing for a smooth transition and understanding of the new rules.

Potential impact and significance for Californians

The signing of Assembly Bill 12 marks a pivotal moment in California's rental landscape. For a state grappling with housing affordability challenges, this legislation could pave the way for greater housing accessibility for countless Californians. Many potential renters, though financially capable of managing monthly rents, find themselves shut out of the housing market due to excessive security deposits. By capping these deposits at one month's rent, more families and individuals might find it feasible to secure housing without the daunting barrier of accumulating multiple months' worth of rent upfront.

However, every legislation brings a spectrum of responses from various stakeholders. While many celebrate the bill as a stride towards greater inclusivity, there might be concerns from landlords and property owners. Some might argue that the cap limits their ability to safeguard against potential tenant risks, especially in a state where repair and maintenance costs can be high.

Additionally, smaller landlords, despite some exemptions, could be anxious about their financial security and ability to recover costs in case of significant property damages. Balancing the interests of all parties involved remains a challenge, and the true impact of AB12 will be seen in its implementation and the subsequent market responses.

Embracing change for a brighter rental future

The introduction of Assembly Bill 12 (AB12) marks a significant shift in California's rental landscape, emphasizing a more balanced relationship between landlords and tenants. For landlords, while this change might require some adjustments, it presents an opportunity to contribute to a more equitable housing market, reflecting the evolving needs of today's Californians.

By understanding, adapting to, and navigating these changes strategically, property owners can ensure a harmonious relationship with their tenants, fostering a thriving rental community. As California sets the pace, it's a timely reminder that change, when embraced, can pave the way for progress and prosperity in the real estate sector.

Disclaimer: This article provides general information about Assembly Bill 12 (AB 12) and related rental legislation in California. It does not provide legal advice, and it's not intended to be a substitute for legal counsel on any subject matter. For specific advice about your particular situation, you should consult with a qualified attorney or relevant expert. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this information, the author and publisher accept no responsibility for any omissions or errors or any actions taken in reliance on this information.

Important Note: This post is for informational and educational purposes only. It should not be taken as legal, accounting, or tax advice, nor should it be used as a substitute for such services. Always consult your own legal, accounting, or tax counsel before taking any action based on this information.

Gemma Smith

With 7 years in property management, Gemma serves as a key content strategist at While excelling in writing, editing, and SEO, she also enhances Azibo's social media presence. Passionately, Gemma educates others to make informed real estate investment decisions in the ever-changing market.

Other related articles

No items found.
Rental rundown background image
Rental rundown hero image

Whether you’re a property owner, renter, property manager, or real estate agent, gain valuable insights, advice, and updates by joining our newsletter.

Subscriber Identity

I am a

Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.