Do Landlords Have to Accept Emotional Support Animals? Know the Facts

Amidst the dynamic world of rentals, the conversation around Emotional Support Animals is gaining momentum. Join us as we unpack this trending topic.

Gemma Smith
Last Updated
October 6, 2023
Do Landlords Have to Accept Emotional Support Animals? Know the Facts

In the bustling world of rental properties, a rising topic has both tenants and landlords buzzing: emotional support animals (ESAs).

Unlike service dogs that are specifically trained to assist those with physical or mental impairments, ESAs serve as therapeutic companions for those grappling with emotional or mental health challenges. Their role isn't about performing tasks but rather providing emotional comfort.

As a tenant keen on urban living or a property manager trying to uphold the peace of multiple rental units, you might wonder: Do landlords legally need to accommodate these animals, even if they have a no-pet policy?

As we explore this topic further, we’ll look at the intricacies of federal and state laws, fair housing rules, and the ever-evolving dynamics between tenants and housing providers.

What is an emotional support animal?

An emotional support animal is an assistance animal that provides emotional comfort and companionship to individuals experiencing mental or emotional conditions. Unlike service animals, which are trained to perform specific tasks for individuals with disabilities, ESAs do not require specialized training. Their primary role is to offer emotional stability and alleviate symptoms associated with conditions such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

ESAs can be any animal, with dogs and cats being the most common. Still, they differ from regular pets because a licensed mental health professional has prescribed the pets due to their therapeutic benefit.

Housing rights and emotional support animals: The Fair Housing Act (FHA)

Once  the significance and role of emotional support animals is clear, we can then unpack their legal rights and provisions in housing contexts. The primary legal guideline for housing in the US is the Fair Housing Act (FHA). The FHA prohibits discrimination in housing based on disability, among other protected classes. With the FHA’s protections, here’s what an emotional support pet owner can expect:

1. Reasonable accommodations: Under the FHA, landlords must provide "reasonable accommodations" to allow persons with disabilities to use and enjoy their housing fully. This often includes exceptions to no-pet policies to allow ESAs, given that the individual has a verifiable disability and the animal assists with that disability in some way.

2. Verification: A landlord can request reliable documentation verifying the tenant's disability and the need for the emotional support animal. However, this does not mean a tenant has to provide exhaustive medical records. Often, a note from a qualified medical professional stating the need for the ESA is sufficient.

3. Exceptions: There are certain exceptions to the FHA. Examples include:

  • Buildings with four or fewer units where the landlord lives in one of the units.
  • Single-family housing sold or rented without a broker. 
  • Housing operated by religious organizations.

State-level regulations on emotional support animals

Beyond the provisions of the federal Fair Housing Laws, there are state-specific laws to consider, too. Many states, such as Michigan, have their own fair housing regulations offering varying degrees of protection for individuals with disabilities and their emotional support animals. These laws can sometimes be more restrictive or more lenient than the FHA, making it important for tenants and landlords to familiarize themselves with the regulations specific to their state.

When can a landlord deny an ESA?

While the FHA provides protections for individuals with disabilities, there are circumstances where a landlord might legally deny an ESA:

  1. Direct threat: If the animal threatens the health and safety of others that cannot be reduced or eliminated by another reasonable accommodation.
  2. Significant damage: If the animal causes substantial physical damage to the property that cannot be reduced or eliminated by another reasonable accommodation.
  3. Undue burden: Accommodating the ESA would cause the housing provider undue financial or administrative burden.
  4. Size and breed: While breed, size, and weight limitations may not apply directly to ESAs, if there's a justifiable reason (like the structural capacity of the accommodation), a landlord might raise concerns.

Benefits of ESAs for landlords

While much of the discussion around emotional support animals in housing tends to center on legal obligations and tenant rights, the potential advantages of ESAs for landlords and property managers is important to discuss as well.

  • Tenant well-being: Firstly, accommodating ESAs can contribute to tenants’ well-being. A tenant who feels supported in their mental and emotional health can lead to a more stable and long-term rental arrangement. This stability can be valuable in the competitive rental market, ensuring continuity and fewer vacancies.
  • Financial considerations: While landlords might be tempted to charge a pet deposit or an elevated rent due to an ESA, the FHA may deem such charges discriminatory. Under the FHA, emotional support animals are not considered pets, but rather a necessary accommodation for a disability. Charging additional fees for ESAs when regular pets are not subjected to the same can lead to legal complications. Landlords should consult legal counsel and ensure financial decisions align with federal, state, and local guidelines.
  • Reputational benefits: In a world where property reviews and tenant experiences are shared widely online, being known as an ESA-friendly landlord will help to promote your business organically. This reputation portrays the property and the property manager in a compassionate light and can attract a broader range of potential tenants eager to find a home that accommodates their needs.

Tenant's responsibilities and ESAs

While it's essential to recognize tenants' rights with emotional support animals, understanding their responsibilities is equally important. Tenants must ensure their ESAs maintain a peaceful coexistence within their housing community.

One of the primary responsibilities centers on the behavior of the animal. While ESAs aren't mandated to undergo specialized training like service dogs or animals, they still need to exhibit good behavior. This means they shouldn't cause disturbances or inconvenience to neighbors or other residents. A harmonious living environment benefits everyone involved, and ensuring one's pet is well-behaved is crucial to achieving this balance.

In addition to behavior, hygiene plays a pivotal role. Maintaining an ESA goes beyond ensuring its emotional support capabilities — it also requires the physical upkeep of the animal. Owners must diligently keep their pets clean and attend to their sanitary needs. Not only does this keep the animal healthy, but it also safeguards the living space's cleanliness and integrity.

Lastly, while the hope is that ESAs don't cause disruptions, there may be instances where they inadvertently cause damage to the rental property. In such cases, tenants must accept accountability. This could entail covering the costs of repairs or replacements. While ESAs provide therapeutic benefits, it's essential to remember that, like any other pet, they can also have moments of unpredictability. Being proactive in training and caring for the ESA can help minimize such instances, but should they occur, the tenant is responsible.

ESA documentation and process

Understanding the type of documentation required for ESAs and the process of obtaining and presenting this documentation is crucial for both landlords and tenants. This ensures a smooth process for all parties involved.

What documentation is required?

The most common form of documentation for an ESA is a letter from a licensed professional. This letter typically:

  1. States that the individual has a diagnosed mental or emotional disability. This disability should be recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).
  2. Affirms that the emotional support animal is key to the individual's treatment plan: It should detail how the animal assists or benefits the individual in coping with or alleviating symptoms of their disability.
  3. Is on the professional's official letterhead: This adds legitimacy to the letter and often includes the professional's license number, date of issuance, and the state or jurisdiction where it was issued.

The process

When renters need an emotional support animal, the journey typically begins with a formal request. The tenant presents an emotional support animal letter from a licensed mental health professional to the landlord or property manager to vouch for their requirement for the animal.

Upon receiving the request, landlords, while respecting the privacy and medical confidentiality of the tenant, are allowed to verify the authenticity of the ESA letter. This verification may include checking the licensing of the mental health professional or checking that the letter is recent and valid.

Following verification, the landlord then assesses the request within the framework of the Fair Housing Act (FHA) guidelines and any specific laws at the state level. It's crucial to understand that a landlord's denial of such requests should strictly be based on valid reasons articulated in the FHA, not personal biases or misconceptions.

Finally, regardless of the outcome, maintaining open communication channels is paramount. Whether the ESA request is accepted or declined, it's essential for both the tenant and the landlord to communicate their perspectives, concerns, and rights. This open dialogue can effectively preempt misunderstandings and foster an environment where both parties are attuned to their respective rights and responsibilities.

Potential pitfalls and concerns

Continuing the process of accommodating ESAs, it's essential to be aware of potential pitfalls and concerns tenants and landlords might encounter.

One of the most pressing issues in recent years is the surge of fake or counterfeit ESA letters available online. Due to the increasing recognition and acceptance of ESAs, scammers have started offering bogus ESA letters for a fee. For landlords, this means an added responsibility to verify the authenticity of any presented ESA documentation meticulously. On the flip side, tenants must exercise caution when seeking out an ESA letter. Falling prey to fraud can jeopardize their housing and expose them to potential legal ramifications.

Another concern revolves around the validity of ESA letters. Over time, these letters may need renewal or updating. Tenants must stay proactive in keeping their ESA documentation current, ensuring it reflects their ongoing need for the animal. Landlords, in turn, should be mindful that these documents might eventually expire, and may, if required, ask tenants for updated documentation in line with legal stipulations.

Lastly, the delicate balance between verification and privacy cannot be overstated. While landlords are within their rights to authenticate ESA documentation, they must tread carefully to not infringe upon a tenant's privacy. Landlords should refrain from seeking exhaustive medical records or probing into specific diagnoses. Tenants should be prepared to furnish only what is necessary to establish their need for an ESA, protecting the confidentiality of their medical details.

Navigating the ESA landscape in rental housing

Navigating the realm of emotional support animals in rental housing demands understanding and empathy from both landlords and tenants. For those struggling with emotional challenges, ESAs are more than pets—they're essential for well-being. Conversely, landlords are responsible for adhering to laws while maintaining their property's welfare.

The journey through ESA regulations underscores the necessity for legal respect, open communication, and mutual regard. The growth of fraudulent ESA services calls attention to the importance of thorough verification.

In essence, while the legality of ESAs in rentals is clear, the shared spirit of understanding and cooperation truly simplifies this topic.

Do landlords have to allow emotional support animals? FAQs

How do I know that my tenant's ESA letter is legit?

To determine the legitimacy of your tenant's ESA letter, you’ll need to evaluate a few factors:

  1. Verification by a mental health professional: A genuine emotional support animal letter is typically issued by a licensed mental health professional or medical professional. This might include psychologists, therapists, or psychiatrists who have evaluated the individual.
  2. Content of the letter: The letter should specify that the tenant has a mental or emotional disability requiring an emotional support animal. It should address the ESA's specific role in providing emotional support and alleviating at least one symptom of their condition.
  3. Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Guidelines: The Department of Housing and Urban Development has provided guidelines on reasonable accommodations for individuals with disabilities, which includes provisions related to ESAs. Familiarizing yourself with these can help you discern genuine requests.
  4. Beware of online services: Given the rise of fraudulent ESA services, be cautious of letters produced by online services that promise quick ESA certifications without a proper evaluation by a mental health professional.
  5. No need for medical records: Federal laws, including fair housing rules, protect a tenant's privacy. You can't ask for detailed medical records or specifics about their disability. The ESA letter should be sufficient as long as it fulfills the criteria mentioned above.
  6. Consultation: If you're ever in doubt, consider seeking guidance from a legal professional well-versed in federal and state laws concerning ESAs in rental properties. This will ensure that you adhere to fair housing laws while safeguarding your rights as a housing provider.

Remember, open communication is crucial. If you have concerns, address them with your tenant and seek clarity. Mutual respect and understanding can pave the way for smoother interactions concerning emotional support animals in rental situations.

Can animals besides cats and dogs act as emotional support animals/assistance animals?

Animals beyond cats and dogs can serve as emotional support animals or assistance animals. The primary purpose of an ESA is to provide emotional support and alleviate symptoms associated with a mental or emotional disability. Unlike service dogs that are specifically trained to perform tasks for individuals with disabilities, ESAs offer comfort and companionship.

For instance, individuals have been known to have animals such as birds, rabbits, and even emotional support horses. However, housing providers or landlords may have concerns regarding breed and weight restrictions, especially in rental properties with limitations.

Under fair housing laws, landlords must make reasonable accommodations for tenants with disabilities, which includes their choice of an ESA. However, these accommodations are balanced with considerations for the safety, peace, and integrity of the property and other tenants.

Open communication between the tenant and the housing provider is always key. Suppose a tenant wishes to have an ESA that isn't a typical cat or dog. In that case, they should present a legitimate emotional support animal letter from a licensed mental health professional specifying the need for that particular animal.

Important Note: This post is for informational and educational purposes only. It should not be taken as legal, accounting, or tax advice, nor should it be used as a substitute for such services. Always consult your own legal, accounting, or tax counsel before taking any action based on this information.

Gemma Smith

With 7 years in property management, Gemma serves as a key content strategist at While excelling in writing, editing, and SEO, she also enhances Azibo's social media presence. Passionately, Gemma educates others to make informed real estate investment decisions in the ever-changing market.

Other related articles

Rental rundown background image
Rental rundown hero image

Whether you’re a property owner, renter, property manager, or real estate agent, gain valuable insights, advice, and updates by joining our newsletter.

Subscriber Identity

I am a

Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.